A large proportion of professional racing drivers began in karts, often from a very young age, such as Michael Schumacher and Fernando Alonso.
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Several former motorcycle champions have also taken up the sport, notably Wayne Rainey , who was paralysed in a racing accident and now races a hand-controlled kart. As one of the cheapest ways to race, karting is seeing its popularity grow worldwide. As modern motor racing is centered on modern technology with a lots of corporate sponsors and politics involved, historical racing tends to be the opposite. Because it is based on a particular era it is more hobbyist oriented, reducing corporate sponsorship and politics.
Events are regulated to only allow cars of a certain era to participate. The only modern equipment used is related to safety and timing. A historical event can be of a number of different motorsport disciplines. While there are several professional teams and drivers in historical racing, this branch of auto sport tends to be contested by wealthy car owners and is thus more amateur and less competitive in its approach.
In many types of auto races, particularly those held on closed courses, flags are displayed to indicate the general status of the track and to communicate instructions to competitors. While individual series have different rules, and the flags have changed from the first years e. The worst accident in racing history is the Le Mans disaster , where more than 80 people died, including the French driver Pierre Levegh. In auto racing, the racing setup or car setup is the set of adjustments made to the vehicle to optimize its behaviour performance, handling , reliability, etc.
Adjustments can occur in suspensions , brakes, transmissions , engines, tires, and many others. Aerodynamics and airflow play big roles in the setup of a racecar. Aerodynamic downforce improves the race car's handling by lowering the center of gravity and distributing the weight of the car equally on each tire. Many aerodynamic experiments are conducted in wind tunnels, to simulate real life situations while measuring the various drag forces on the car.
It is experimentally proven that downforce is gained and the vehicles handling is considerably changed when aerodynamic wings on the front and rear of the vehicle are installed. Suspension plays a huge part in giving the racecar the ability to be driven optimally. Shocks are mounted vertically or horizontally to prevent the body from rolling in the corners.
The suspension is important because it makes the car stable and easier to control and keeps the tires on the road when driving on uneven terrain. It works in three different ways including vertically, longitudinally, and laterally to control movement when racing on various tracks. Tires called R-Compounds are commonly used in motorsports for high amounts of traction. The soft rubber allows them to expand when they are heated up, making more surface area on the pavement, therefore producing the most traction. Tire pressure is dependent on the temperature of the tire and track when racing.
Each time a driver pulls into the pits, the tire pressure and temperature should be tested for optimal performance. When the tires get too hot they will swell or inflate and need to be deflated to the correct pressure. Brakes on a race car are imperative in slowing and stopping the car at precise times and wear quickly depending on the road or track on which the car is being raced, how many laps are being run, track conditions due to weather, and how many caution runs require more braking.
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There are three variables to consider in racing: brake pedal displacement, brake pedal force, and vehicle deceleration. When using the brakes effectively, the driver must go through a buildup phase and end with a modulating phase. These phases include attaining maximum deceleration and modulating the brake pressure. Bite happens when the driver first applies the brakes and they have not warmed up to the correct temperature to operate efficiently. Consistency is measured in how consistent the friction is during the entire time of braking.
These two measurements determine the wear of the brakes.
The race car's engine needs a considerable amount of air to produce maximum power. The air intake manifold sucks the air from scoops on the hood and front bumper and feeds it into the engine. Many engine modifications to increase horsepower and efficiency are commonly used in many racing sanctioning bodies.
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The car is driven onto the DYNO and many gauges and sensors are hooked up to the car that are controlled on an online program to test force, torque, or power. Through the testing, the car's engine maps can be changed to get the most horsepower and ultimately speed out of the vehicle. Racing drivers at the highest levels are usually paid by the team, or by sponsors, and can command very substantial salaries.
Contrary to what may be popularly assumed, racing drivers as a group do not have unusually better reflexes or peripheral response time. In this, researchers have noted a strong correlation between racers' psychological profiles and those of fighter pilots. In tests comparing racers to members of the general public, the greater the complexity of the information processing matrix, the greater the speed gap between racers and the public.
Due partly to the performance capabilities of modern racing cars, racing drivers require a high level of fitness, focus and the ability to concentrate at high levels for long periods in an inherently difficult environment. Racing drivers mainly complain about pains in the lumbar, shoulder and neck regions. Racing drivers experience extremely large g-forces because formula cars and sports prototypes generate more downforce and are able to corner at significantly higher speeds. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the motorsport.
For the video game, see Auto Racing video game. For other uses, see Auto race disambiguation. For the Welsh pop band, see Racing Cars. Jimmie Johnson leads the field racing three-wide multiple rows back at Daytona International Speedway in the Daytona Main article: History of auto racing.
Main articles: Formula racing and Open wheel car. Main article: Touring car racing. Main article: Sports car racing. Main article: Production car racing. See also: One-Design and Spec racing. Main article: Time attack. Main article: Stock car racing. Main article: Rallying. Main article: Drag racing. Main article: Off-road racing. Main article: Kart racing. Main article: Historic motorsport. See also: Category:Auto racing by type. Main article: Racing flags. See also: Deaths in motorsports. Main article: Racing setup. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Sports portal. Retrieved September 2, Retrieved July 27, Welcome to Who? Forix, Autosport, 8W. Gallica in French. July 23, The automobile in American history and culture: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. World Stadiums. Motorbooks International. August 30, USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved August 20, Red Bull. Retrieved August 8, Associated Press. Retrieved February 8, July 26, Retrieved August 11, Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved October 25, Popular Science. Vehicle System Dynamics.
Retrieved September 3, Academic Search Complete. October Psychol Sport Exerc. Phys Sportsmed. The Los Angeles Times. Indianapolis: Tribune Publishing. May 19, Retrieved February 24, The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved April 11, Classes of auto racing. Automobile endurance races. Half marathon Marathon Ultramarathon Ekiden.
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Drag boat racing Hydroplane racing Jet sprint boat racing Inshore powerboat racing Offshore powerboat racing. Air racing Kart racing Parkour Radio-controlled car racing Slot car racing. Alpine skiing Cross-country skiing Snowboarding Speed skating Sledding. Adventure racing Triathlon Duathlon Aquathlon. List of forms of racing. Battery box top will be securely mounted to battery box. Ground wire will be directly to frame or roll bar. No aftermarket racing transmissions allowed Berts, Brinns, or Falcons, etc… 3. No Aluminum flywheels. Must utilize a stock single plate clutch.
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Stock radiator in stock location. Aluminum or plastic radiator allowed. No electric fans. Post traction limited slip, locked or welded, spider gears allowed. Floaters will be allowed. No altering of stock brakes allowed. Brake pedal must remain in stock location. Cars must have fully functional brakes on all four wheels. Rear disc brakes allowed.
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Brake assemblies must be in stock location on all four corners. No brake bias or proportional valve permitted. One O. Body and frames must be O. No switching or shifting of any body parts allowed. Complete bumper-to-bumper O. Repairs to stub must retain exact O. Front A-frames and rear suspension arms, O. May run upper tubular A arms. No coil-over, overload, cargo ratchet or air assisted shocks permitted. Racing shocks permitted must fit in same brackets as O. Racing springs allowed, must maintain stock O.
Metric cars can reinforce O. No lift bars or recovery shocks or spring recoils allowed. No screw jacks. Reinforce racing type wheels mandatory. Right rear bead lock only. One-inch lug nuts are mandatory. TIRES 1. Maximum tire is 3. No grooving, sipping or soaking allowed 4. Absolutely no racing tires, disguised as DOT street tires allowed.
Fuel cell mandatory. Bracing in trunk permitted. No electrical fuel pumps allowed. Fuel line from trunk to engine compartment must be steel or steel braided. No copper or rubber allowed. Tech inspector must approve installation. Numbers with letters are allowed. Make the letter large enough to be seen from the scoring tower. Color of the number must be contrasting with the car color. Numbers must be located on both doors and roof of the car. Put the roof number so it can be seen from the tower when the car is in the front stretch.
Car number above the right rear bumper is recommended. The car must be washed prior to each nights event. Throughout the night, if the number becomes covered with mud, it must be washed before participating in the next event so the scoring team can read the number. If you are caught cheating after a race, you will be disqualified for the night. You will lose winnings and points for the event. If you are caught cheating a second time, you will be barred for two weeks and lose all points for the year. Each competitor is expected to investigate and educate themselves for continuing improvement regarding their own personal safety equipment.
Each car should be equipped with an approved 5 point seat belt restraint system within the date of the belt expiration. Seat belts restraint systems shall be installed in accordance with the directions and application of the system supplier or manufacturer. Seat belt webbing that comes into contact with any sharp or unradiused metal edge should be protected from that edge by means of push on grip vinyl trim.. Seat manufacturers supply the seat with trim protecting the webbing from abrasion or cutting under impact conditions and should be used to their specifications.
Each driver must wear an approved full face helmet, fire suit with top and bottom, and racing shoes and gloves. Head and Neck restraints are strongly recommended. Officials may change any of the Thunder Car rules in the interest of fairness and safety at any time and all decisions are final! Cars may be inspected at anytime. If car is found illegal, driver will lose all money and points for that night. Top 5 Finishers will be weighed immediately following feature unless otherwise announced.