In 2D computer animation, moving objects are often referred to as " sprites. The location of the sprite is changed slightly, between each displayed frame, to make the sprite appear to move.
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Computer animation uses different techniques to produce animations. Most frequently, sophisticated mathematics is used to manipulate complex three-dimensional polygons , apply " textures ", lighting and other effects to the polygons and finally rendering the complete image. A sophisticated graphical user interface may be used to create the animation and arrange its choreography. Another technique called constructive solid geometry defines objects by conducting boolean operations on regular shapes, and has the advantage that animations may be accurately produced at any resolution.
To animate means, figuratively, to "give life to". There are two basic methods that animators commonly use to accomplish this. Computer-assisted animation is usually classed as two-dimensional 2D animation. Drawings are either hand drawn pencil to paper or interactively drawn on the computer using different assisting appliances and are positioned into specific software packages.
Within the software package, the creator places drawings into different key frames which fundamentally create an outline of the most important movements. Computer-generated animation is known as three-dimensional 3D animation.
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Creators design an object or character with an X, a Y and a Z axis. No pencil-to-paper drawings create the way computer generated animation works. The object or character created will then be taken into a software, key framing and tweening are also carried out in computer generated animation but are also a lot of techniques used that do not relate to traditional animation. Animators can break physical laws by using mathematical algorithms to cheat mass , force and gravity rulings. Fundamentally, time scale and quality could be said to be a preferred way to produce animation as they are two major things that are enhanced by using computer generated animation.
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Another positive aspect of CGA is the fact one can create a flock of creatures to act independently when created as a group. An animal's fur can be programmed to wave in the wind and lie flat when it rains instead of programming each strand of hair separately. A few examples of computer-generated animation movies are Toy Story , Frozen , and Shrek. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It has been suggested that this article be split into articles titled 3D computer animation and 2D computer animation.
Discuss June This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: History of computer animation. See also: Timeline of computer animation in film and television. Main article: Computer facial animation. Play media.
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Main article: List of animation studios. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Animation portal. Animation Animation database Autodesk Avar animation variable Computer-generated imagery CGI New York Institute of Technology Computer Graphics Lab Computer representation of surfaces Hand-Over Humanoid animation List of animation studios List of computer-animated films List of computer-animated television series Medical animation Morph target animation Machinima recording video from games and virtual worlds Motion capture Procedural animation Ray tracing Rich Representation Language Skeletal animation Timeline of computer animation in film and television Virtual artifact Wire-frame model 12 basic principles of animation.
Retrieved on Archived from the original on Retrieved New York Daily News. Retrieved October 10, Archived from the original on January 11, The Animated Movie Guide. Chicago Review Press. Popular Mechanics. Beane, Andy Kuperberg, Marcia Focal Press. Magnenat Thalmann, Nadia ; Thalmann, Daniel Handbook of Virtual Humans. Wiley Publishing. Masson, Terrence Digital Fauxtography Inc. Means, Sean P. December 28, The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved January 8, Affective computing and intelligent interaction. Parent, Rick Computer Animation: Algorithms and Techniques.
Ohio: Elsevier. Pereira, Fernando C. Parke, Frederic I.
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Computer Facial Animation 2nd ed. Massachusetts: A. Peters, Ltd. Sito, Tom Massachusetts: MIT Press. Animation topics. Limited animation Masking Rotoscoping Exposure sheet.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Our approach exploits the fact that shots belonging to one particular scene often have similar backgrounds.
Although part of the video frame is covered by foreground objects, the background scene can still be reconstructed by a mosaic technique. The proposed scene extraction algorithm consists of two main components: determination of the shot similarity measure and a shot grouping process. In our approach, several low-level visual features are integrated to compute the similarity measure between two shots. On the other hand, the rules of film-making are used to guide the shot grouping process.
Experimental results show that our approach is promising and outperforms some existing techniques. C Pattern Recognition Society.